How Do Genes Determine the Traits of an Organism?

Genes are the fundamental unit of inheritance in living organisms. They are made up of DNA, a complex molecule that contains the instructions needed to build and maintain a living organism. These instructions are encoded in the sequence of nucleotides, or building blocks, that make up DNA.

Each gene contains the information needed to produce a specific protein, which performs a specific function in the body. Proteins are responsible for a wide range of activities in the body, such as building and repairing tissues, carrying oxygen throughout the body, and helping the body to fight off infections.

The traits of an organism, such as its physical characteristics, behavior, and abilities, are determined by the genes it inherits from its parents. For example, the color of a person's eyes is determined by the genes they inherit from their parents. Similarly, the ability to roll your tongue is also determined by your genes.

Genes can be dominant or recessive. Dominant genes are more likely to be expressed, or seen, in an organism, while recessive genes are less likely to be expressed. For example, if a person has the gene for brown eyes (a dominant trait) and the gene for blue eyes (a recessive trait), the person will likely have brown eyes because the brown eye gene is dominant.

Genes can also interact with each other and with the environment to produce different traits. For example, the color of a person's hair may be determined by both genetics and environmental factors such as exposure to sunlight.

In conclusion, genes play a crucial role in determining the traits of an organism. They are passed down from parent to offspring and contain the instructions needed to build and maintain a living organism. Understanding how genes work and interact with each other and the environment can help us better understand the complex processes involved in the inheritance of traits.

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